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Super cyclone Amphan

 
The Indian metrological department has predicted that Cyclone Amphan, which is formed in the Bay of Bengal has developed into a super cyclone, and it is expected to make landfall tomorrow, along the coastline of West Bengal and Bangladesh, a super Cyclone can generate extremely high-speed winds in the range of 240 kilometers per hour. And it can cause extensive damage to both life and property. So this article provides us an opportunity to understand a few important things about cyclones. First, let us talk about the cyclone season in the Bay of Bengal. See the formation of cyclones in the Bay of Bengal, can be seen in two seasons, one in the pre-monsoon season, that is between April to June, and two in the post-monsoon season that is between October to December. According to historical data. A majority of these cyclones are formed between October and December, whereas the pre-monsoon season. We witnessed the formation of new cyclones in May, and very few cyclones are formed in April. But generally, the cyclones that form in April and May are known to be very destructive. Now let us talk about the naming system for cyclones see the world metrological organization has developed a region-specific naming system for tropical storms. Based on these guidelines of the WMO, the countries of the North Indian Ocean, have evolved a naming system for tropical cyclones that occur in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, which is a part of the North Indian Ocean. There are eight countries from the north Indian Ocean region, which are a part of this naming system. This includes India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka Maldives, and Oman. As per the guidelines of the WHO these eight countries have suggested eight names, each. So in total, we have 64 names that are used in a sequential order to name the tropical cyclones that form in the north Indian Ocean region. So the name that has been used to name the cyclone was suggested by Thailand. Now let us understand what is landfall. See landfall refers to the event. When a storm that is formed over water crosses over to land. It basically refers to the time and place, where the eye of the storm crosses over to the land. So when you have a tropical cyclone that has formed over water. And when its central part, that is the eye, which is referred to as a region of calm when it crosses over to land the time and place of its landing are referred to as the landfall event. So when a storm or a tropical cyclone makes landfall. It generates extreme weather conditions, which can cause widespread damage. In the case of Cyclone Amphan, which has been categorized as a super Cyclone. The landfall event is expected to cause extensive damage along the coastlines of West Bengal, Bangladesh, and as well as in the coastal parts of Odisha during landfall a cyclone brings extremely heavy rainfall to the coastal areas, and it can generate very high-speed winds, which can lead to storm surges at these extreme weather conditions can cause extensive damage to both life and hazardous property. In the case of cyclones that have been categorized as Super cyclones wind speeds can be in the range of 240 kilometers per hour, and it can cause extensive damage to life and property that is located along with the coastal areas. If a cyclone has been categorized as an extremely severe cyclonic storm, then wind speeds can be in the range of 165 to 175 kilometers per hour. With gusting speeds of up to 195 kilometers per hour. These high-speed winds are complete with heavy rainfall and storm surges can cause extensive damage to life and property, including the uprooting of trees damage to houses, old buildings, and as well as to infrastructure, especially to critical infrastructure, located along with the coastal areas. Apart from injuring and killing many people. These cyclones can cause extensive damage to infrastructure, such as the uprooting of electric poles telephone poles damaged power cables and power grids extensive damage to connectivity infrastructure, such as roadways railway lines, etc. So much damage to infrastructure can lead to a complete disruption of connectivity and communication in the region. Apart from this, tropical cyclones, especially the ones that have been categorized as Super cyclones, they can cause extensive damage to standing crops. They can affect the livelihood of fishermen, and they can even damage biodiversity in the region.
So to deal with this disaster. The National Disaster Management Authority has come out with a cyclops specific policy and guidelines for disaster management, as per this policy highest priority has been given to prevention and mitigation measures as a part of the pre-disaster phase. Accordingly, in the pre-disaster phase, the Indian metrological department has been designated as the nodal agency for providing early warning and forecasting services with improved early warning and forecasting services, timely alerts can be issued and appropriate prevention and mitigation strategies can be implemented as per these guidelines of the NDMA, the best mitigation strategy for minimizing loss of lives is to build adequate Cyclone shelters and put in place, efficient and effective evacuation plans. As soon as early warnings are received from the IMD, the district authorities are responsible for implementing these evacuation plans, with the support of the state and the central authorities. As per these evacuation plans, the district administration would be responsible for halting all activities in the coastal district including fishing. And it has to work with the specialized forces of the NDRF and the SDRF, and it has to evacuate the coastal population, especially the vulnerable population into these Cyclone shelters. So as per these established disaster management plans, the specialized units of the NBDF and the SDRF have already been deployed in the West Bengal, and as well as in coastal Orissa. So in the coastal districts of these states, the District administration has to simultaneously deal with the triple challenge posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. The crisis created by the reverse migration of the migrant workers at the expected landfall of super Cyclone Amphan.

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