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The security challenges India faces from both China and Pakistan


India China conflict 
 In the context of ongoing tensions with China, India should always be prepared to simultaneously deal with two challenges posed by China and Pakistan. While making the statement, India has forgotten that it has to an antagonist in the region. And it has let its guard down, or it has been complicit in its preparation. It has paid a very high price. But on the other hand, whenever India has accounted for the possibility of a simultaneous threat from both China and Pakistan, India has done very well in securing its national interest, and as well as it's territory. The best way to understand this is to look at the differences between the 1962 war with China. At the 1971 liberation of Bangladesh war. See if you look at the 1962 conflict with China. There were plenty of signs for the then Nehru government to realize the expansionist and territorial tendencies of China, and how it seeks to aggressively settle its territorial disputes.This failure of the Nehru government to reach China correctly led India to ignore the warning signs that were emerging from China. And it led India to believe that the primary threat towards national security came only for Pakistan. See, there is no doubt that in the 1950s, Pakistan, did pose a grave threat to India's territorial integrity. But at the same time, China should have also been seen as a similar threat because there were plenty of warning signs. For example, in 1950, when China is edX Tibet. It set out a signal towards expansionist territorial tendencies that between 1950 and 1960. How China approached the border dispute with India should have what India about China's inclination towards aggression. If you look at how China dismissed the validity of the McMahon Line, and how it increased its claims, over Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh, it becomes very clear that China poses nearly the same threat as Pakistan to India's territorial integrity. But unfortunately, then the government of India failed to realize this threat of India ended up paying a very heavy price for this. So that's the reason why the current government to not be complicit while dealing with China and always prepare for a two-front challenge with both China and Pakistan. Such a strategy would help India to secure its territorial integrity, as well as its national interest as it was seen during the 1971 liberation of the Bangladesh war. Because during this conflict, the Indra Gandhi government took into account the threat posed by both China and Pakistan and prepared the Indian Armed Forces, the Indian intelligence agencies, India's diplomatic outreach.The 1971 War traces packets, origin to the genocide of the Pakistani army had committed against Bengalis in East Pakistan. So when India asserts support to the liberation cause of Bangladesh hostilities broke out between India and Pakistan, but also why India was mindful of the threat posed by other countries such as China, and as well as by global powers, such as the United States. During this period, both the United States and China were expected to extract complete support to Pakistan, and even possibly make a military move against India, in support of Pakistan. Because Pakistan had emerged as a key ally of both the United States and as well as for China. Because during the late 1960s that US President Richard Nixon and his national security adviser Henry Kissinger, they were seeking to re-establish diplomatic ties with China. And this was the number one foreign policy priority for the United States. And Pakistan was acted as an ally for Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger, and it helped bridge the relations between the United States and China. So during this period when India went to war against Pakistan, the United States, struck with Pakistan and treated India with military consequences. And by this time, China had already considered Pakistan, as an extremely close ally, against India. As a result of the 1962 and 1965 conflicts. So as India began making advances against Pakistan during the 1971 War, the United States government threatened to dispatch the seven naval fleet into the way of the goal. And it even pushes China to exert pressure on India by launching military assaults along the Indochina border. But thankfully, the Indra Gandhi government, which had anticipated this possible collusion between Pakistan, the United States, and China had managed to secure an insurance policy from the Soviet Union. Because remember that this was the era of the Cold War. And until the 1971 conflict, India had firmly remained non aligned for nearly two decades. India has championed the cause of the non-aligned movement, but the axis of Pakistan, US, and China, which was formed during the 1971 War pushed India to abandon the non-aligned approach and align with the Soviet Union. And this led to the signing of the historic treaty of peace and friendship between India and the Soviet Union. Under this treaty, the Soviet Union promised to come to India as assistance, if ever threatened by the US and China. And this strategic move of the Indra government helps India secure an unprecedented diplomatic and military victory.This was made possible because India took into account the security challenges posed by both China and Pakistan simultaneously.There are very important lessons that the Modi government needs to learn from the 1962 conflict. See before the 1962 conflict, India had demonstrated friendliness towards China, without any of the supposed to be either desperate without the actual use of force. This led China to take India for granted. And it led India to become complicit about the threat posed by China.Since the 1950s, even though China unilaterally annex Tibet. And even though China was questioning, India territorial claims, India, extended, a hand of friendship, in the interest of maintaining good relations. By signing the Panchshil agreement. And by supporting China's permanent membership of the UN Security Council. But these friendly views of India was not reciprocated by China. Later in the late 1950s when tensions started increasing between India and China, then Nehru adopted a firm approach towards China towards forwarding policy.But despite this, the Indian side, neither had the intention, nor the capability to go to war against China, because the Indian government had never really contemplated, a major security threat from China. The writer says that government records and transcripts of those days, make it clear that neither privacy Nehru nor the defense minister Krishna had ever contemplated war with China. and there was excessive focus towards Pakistan. India's diplomatic and military strategy was largely focused on Pakistan by ignoring the threat posed by China, and it was this failure of India, to take into account the two-foot challenge posed by China and Pakistan, which led to India's defeat in the 1962 conflict.China's intention during the 1962 conflict was never really to occupy India directly. Instead, it intended to set out a clear cut message to India to Asia and the world that China is the dominant power in the region will not hesitate to use aggression to settle any disputes. By referring to the informal, Wuhan Submitted the current approach of the Modi government is quite similar to the dead Nehru government because over the last few years. The Modi government has been excessively focused on the threat posed only by Pakistan. Whereas, despite increasing aggression of China, across South Asia and the South China Sea. The Modi government has adopted a friendly approach to the Chinese government. And it has been seeking to resolve all disputes, only to bilateral negotiations. The right of cautions that all the while the Modi government is ignoring the possibility of a two-front challenge that could be both simultaneously by China and Pakistan. The writer says that even concerning the to club dispute at the current ongoing Galvan River Valley dispute. China's teach it is not to occupy any territory. Instead, it intends to send out a message and exert its dominance over India, as well as on the Asia Pacific region, and the rest of the world. So by keeping this in mind, at the lessons of the 1962 conflict, t that the Indian government needs to start preparing two front challenges that could emerge simultaneously with China and Pakistan.

The developments in the run-up to the 1962 conflict with the current ongoing tensions between India and China. Cautions that there is an uncanny resemblance between the two events, and he reminds the Modi government that it was the military unpreparedness of the Nehru government and its inability to read the larger strategic picture, which led to India's defeat. The Modi government not to repeat the same mistakes. The current Indian political leadership has failed to comprehend the long term strategic objectives of China, and hence the top political leaders including the prime minister to first fully grasp, China's strategic objectives, behind triggering these minor clashes along the border. Before drafting a response against this Chinese aggression. China is trying to achieve long term objectives, by repeatedly exerting pressure, along the border. First and foremost, repeated border incursions by Chinese forces shows that India does not belong in the same league as that of China. This is the message that China is trying to drive, as it is essentially an attempt of China to exert its dominance over India. Second, China is also trying to set out a clear war before India that any attempt to contain its influence at the growth in the region by allies with rival countries such as the United States, Japan, and Australia will be met with consequences. So basically, China is trying to exert itself as the predominant power in the Indo Pacific region, and it wants India to acknowledge this without falling under the influence of the bubbling block, led by the United States. Third, this is also an attempt of China to keep India preoccupied with these internal and external challenges, so that it can prevent the emergence of India as an alternate pool of power in Asia, then fourth, the nexus between China, Pakistan has been designed to pin, India down and keep its influence contained within the region, the strategy of China is to exert repeated pressure on India, through frequent border incursions towards its north and east and towards the west, China wants Pakistan to exert pressure on India, and this is the reason why China keeps giving massive amounts of economic aid to Pakistan, and as well as extends complete support to Pakistan's nuclear weapons program at ballistic missile program. So this nexus at with pressure from the west, north, and the East serves China's long term strategic objective of keeping India contained and preoccupied. And this effectively prevents India from emerging as an alternative pole of power in Asia. So the Modi government to keep these long term strategic objectives of China in mind and come up with calculated policies, which can help neutralize China's diplomatic and military clout in the region. But this does not mean India should abandon its foreign policy principles and ally with the United States, Japan, and Australia. But instead, he's asking, India to retain its autonomy in foreign policymaking.

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