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India's New Education Policy 2020

Union Cabinet has given its approval for the national education policy of the year 2020. This will bring massive changes in the educational sector, and will also pave the way for clearly forms in school, as well as higher education. In this particular backdrop, the Ministry of Human Resource Development will be given a new name called as Ministry of Education, so that special emphasis is given to education and the massive transformation of the educational sector.     Now let's get to the background. Previously, we have had two national policies on education. One was in the year of 1968. The other was in the year, 1986, and after 34 years. What we today now have is the national education policy of the year, 2020, the first national policy on education was drafted in the year, 1968, and this was on the recommendation of Kothari Commission. Thus, the national policy of 1968 wanted to bring total reformation of the educational sector, aimed at extending prospects of education to all the quarters of India, or the underprivileged sectors, and also wanted to accomplish, harmony, and integration in India.     The objective of this national policy was to pave the way for education to all sections of the society with special emphasis on the Schedule Cast on the Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes who were deprived of education previously. So these policies wanted to reform, education, provide education to the underprivileged sections of the society so that education could reach every single person and he transformed his life. And after 34, years, we have a new policy initiative by the Modi government, and that is called as the national education policy of the year, 2020, the draft was given by one of the educational committees, which was headed by ISRO chief Kasturirangan.     The new education policy, are some of the salient features, and one of the important features is the replacement of a particular structure. When you look at the structure of 1986 and before that, what we have is 10 years of schooling. So a person will start studying from the first standard to 10 standards. And after that, he has to go through two years of pre-university education. So what we have is from the age group of six until 16, if we studying from the first standard to the 10th standard. And after that could be doing this +1 and +2, that is 11th, 12th standard before entering the pre-University. So, this structure, which was present from 1986 and before that will now be replaced with the new architecture, which is called 5+3+3+4.

Union Cabinet has given its approval for the national education policy of the year 2020. This will bring massive changes in the educational sector, and will also pave the way for clear reforms in school, as well as higher education. In this particular backdrop, the Ministry of Human Resource Development will be given a new name called as Ministry of Education, which gives special emphasis to education and the massive transformation of the educational sector.


Earlier, we have had two national policies on education. One was in the year of 1968. The other was in the year, 1986, and after 34 years, today now we have the national education policy of the year 2020. The first national policy on education was drafted in the year, 1968, and this was on the recommendation of the Kothari Commission. Thus, the national policy of 1968 wanted to bring total reformation of the educational sector, aimed at extending prospects of education to all the quarters of India, or the underprivileged sections, and also wanted to accomplish, harmony, and integration in India.


 The objective of this national policy was to pave the way for education to all sections of the society with special emphasis for the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes who were deprived of education earlier. So these policies wanted to reform education by providing education to the underprivileged sections of the society so that education could reach every single person and transformed his life. And after 34, years, we have a new policy initiative by the Modi government, and which is called the national education policy of the year, 2020, the draft was given by the educational committee which was headed by the ISRO chief Kasturirangan.


 The new education policy, are some of the salient features and one of the important features is the replacement of a particular structure10+2. When you look at the structure of 1986 and before that, we have 10 years of schooling. So a person will start studying from the first standard to 10 standards. And after that, he has to go through two years of pre-university education. Which was the age group of six until 16. If we studying from the first standard to the 10th standard. And after that doing this +1 and +2, that is 11th, 12th standard before entering the pre-University. So, this structure, which was present from 1986 and before that will now be replaced with the new architecture, which is called 5+3+3+4.


There are about four stages. First is the foundational stage. Then second called the preparatory stage. Then we have the middle stage and finally, we have the secondary stage.


The foundation stage is divided into two compartments. That is three years initially, and after that, it is divided into two years, so this will cumulatively become 3+2 about 5 year which is the first part of the education system. We have preschool people. Who are these preschool people, those who are belonging to the age group of three to six belong called preschool? In this period of three to six years of age, they would be taught the language skills, cognitive skills, they will be taught how to identify things. All these teachings will be based on activity-based learning, as well as play-based learning. This will be further enhanced when they go to the first standard, as well as the second standard. 


The second stage is called a preparatory stage. This is for all those students who belong to the age group of eight to 11, and they will be appearing for classes, three to five. So this will cumulatively be about three years, so they would be studying from the third standard, up until the fifth standard. The most important point during this particular period is most of the students during this period will be taught in the local language or the mother tongue, or in that particular state language. So the second stage is more about discovery activity-based and interactive classrooms, learning, an important point to be noted is that all these learning will happen in the local language or the mother tongue. That is the importance of the secondary stage.


 The third stage is about the middle stage, which is for the age group of 11 to 14 those students who are in six to eight standard, and this will again be for about three years, which belongs to that particular pattern. In this particular period, students will start learning all the coding, as well as vocational activities from class six onwards. Until now, we didn't have so-called learning. The coding was restricted after 11th standard and in few cases, there were certain schools as well, which are also given this education of coding from eight standards, but now there is a new initiative taken with computer coding would be taught to all those students after six standards.


 The secondary stage called stage four. This should be a multidisciplinary nature, greater critical thinking would be given to all the student's flexibility would be given to the students and students would be able to select the choice of the subjects. So this means that this will have a progressive shift towards a scientific approach in education. 

So this structure 5+3+3+4 will be replacing the earlier structure of 10+2. That is the most important factor of this new education policy to bring this entire architecture of the new education policy. So we have required teachers to implement this education policy, but currently, when you look into this whole architecture of the education system, there are fewer teachers. at the same time, we have neglected the pupil-teacher ratio. If the number of students is increasing for a single teacher. That means the teacher is not able to concentrate on all the students in that particular class.


 So the government will bring in this particular pupil-teacher ratio under control, and at the same time, it will fill all the vacancies for the teacher. These are the concentration areas that the government will initially be focused on it will focus on those areas which are currently this advantage area. This can be in the rural sector, or in those sectors where the large pupil-teacher ratios are present, or in those areas where there is a high rate of illiteracy, so they identify these areas, and immediately push the teachers, into these domains. Special attention will also be given to all those teachers who are locally present why because they understand the language they understand the culture, and they will be able to better communicate to the students in this particular area. So identification of local teachers becomes very important in this particular backdrop, and most important of all, is require these teachers to be updated periodically, we know for the fact that education is not static. But it is dynamic. So Teacher Education teacher training teacher support, teacher, encouragement, and continuous professional development of teachers will also be taken into picture. When it comes to the new educational policy. So we have to remember that teachers are the bedrock of the educational system. So we have to make sure that we train them so that they can train the students, and, ultimately, we have education, protecting all the people across different sections of the society across different corners of the country.


 The government is planning to come up with a multidisciplinary bachelor's program with exit options, for example, there is a three-year course. According to this three-year program. This will be divided into three different compartments. So, in case there is a student who happens to compete in the first year of education in the bachelor's program, so he can exit this particular program, and he will be awarded the certificate. So that is called an exit option. In case I finished two years of my education in that bachelor's degree program then I would be awarded a diploma. And in case I finished all three years of my education, then I would be handed with a bachelor's degree. And in case it is a four-year degree, then I would also be able to enter into a research program as well. So the final year will have a bachelor's degree, and I will be provided with a research certificate as well. 


Now, after this, in case I want to continue with my master's, then I would be able to keep all these certifications, if I've completed the three-year program, I will have two to two years of masters, but if I have a bachelor program, plus a research certificate, I could just finish my masters in just one year. These are some of the important updates to higher education. To bring all this higher education into the implementation, we have the structural authorities and that structural authority is called as Higher Education Commission of India.


 Currently, we have the UGC which implements the program's schemes and policies for education. And we also have the AICTE, which is looking into the technical aspects that technological education. So, these two will be replaced with what is called as higher educational commission for India, so this will be having four independent verticals, which will carry out all the functions of regulation funding acquisition and setting standards for the learning outcomes in India.


 The government also wants to bring other important changes as well, like phasing out all institutions, for example, we have the IITs into, they are basically into technical education. So these Indian institutes of Technology. By the year, 2040, or any of the similar technical organizations. By the year, 2040 will also have to accommodate art, as well as related subjects of commerce as well. Currently focusing on a single type of education, it can be art, or it can be commerce. Eventually, by the year 2040, we'll have to concentrate on other sets of educational paradigms is another important issue when it comes to the new education policy.


 The government with this new education policy intends to adapt to the National Education Technology forum. We are living in the COVID-19 era, given the disruption caused by the COVID 19 pandemic. We had to move to online classes. So the policy has proposed to set up this particular forum where there would be a free exchange of ideas, by the use of technology. We will have a massive number of people coming and they will give their ideas and the ideas will be implemented, so that there is learning assessment, planning, and administration, both for the school, as well as higher education. So this is a platform that enhances digital learning.



The new education policy also states that the world's top hundred universities will be facilitated to operate in the country through a new law, which will be implemented by the Government of India. So the top hundred universities, who are currently functioning world over would be given a chance to operate in India, but this hope is not without criticism. So what are the criticisms, if these foreign universities are allowed to operate in India, they would raise the cost of education to higher tuition fees, which means the number of students India, would not be able to afford the tuition fees, in case this foreign university does establish in India, and at the same time, we have many educational universities like IITs like AIIMs, which has the number of intellectually good educators? So when this hundred university establish they'll start poaching these intellectuals and these will not be accessible to the poorer sections.


The cabinet has approved a plan to increase the public spending to about, 6% of the GDP. After 1968, the Kothari Commission had proposed that 6% is mandatory for education. So, after 1968. Now, is the year 2020, we will be doing and getting this into implementation. This is a huge number of GDP, which will be used for education purposes, and at the same time, the government is also planning to cap the fees from the educational institutions. We often see that the private education systems are such a way, that the poor are not able to afford and the poor are not able to go to these private institutions why because they have a huge price for this particular private institutions, so the government will bring a cap to the private institutions. And for the schools, it is about making, education, meaningful and less stressful, as well. So for all those students who are attending schools from six standards, up until eight standards, they will have a few days, called the backlist period. During this period, they will have vocational experts, visiting their schools, so they learn carpentry skills, they learn gardening skills pottery skills, as well as artistic skills as well. So this will also bring imagination to the students. There will be no rigid separation between Arts and Sciences between curricular and extracurricular activities, and also provide occasional and other important streams into the education.




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